To determine the risk factor profiles associated with post‐acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) myocardial infarction (MI) over long‐term follow‐up.
This observational study includes prospectively identified AIS patients (n = 9840) admitted to a UK regional centre between January 2003 and December 2016 (median follow‐up: 4.72 years). Predictors of post‐stroke MI during follow‐up were examined using logistic and Cox regression models for in‐hospital and post‐discharge events, respectively. MI incidence was determined using a competing risk non‐parametric estimator. The influence of post‐stroke MI on mortality was examined using Cox regressions.
Mean age (SD) of study participants was 77.3 (12.2) years (48% males). Factors associated with in‐hospital MI (OR [95% CI]) were increasing blood glucose (1.80 [1.17‐2.77] per 10 mmol/L), total leucocyte count (1.25 [1.01‐1.54] per 10 × 109/L) and CRP (1.05 [1.02‐1.08] per 10 mg/L increase). Age (HR [95% CI] = 1.03 [1.01‐1.06]), coronary heart disease (1.59 [1.01‐2.50]), chronic kidney disease (2.58 [1.44‐4.63]) and cancers (1.76 [1.08‐2.89]) were associated with incident MI between discharge and one‐year follow‐up. Age (1.02 [1.00‐1.03]), diabetes (1.96 [1.38‐2.65]), congestive heart failure (2.07 [1.44‐2.99]), coronary heart disease (1.81 [1.31‐2.50]), hypertension [1.86 (1.24‐2.79)] and peripheral vascular disease (2.25 [1.40‐3.63]) were associated with incident MI between 1 and 5 years after discharge. Diabetes (2.01 [1.09‐3.72]), hypertension (3.69 [1.44‐9.45]) and peripheral vascular disease (2.46 [1.02‐5.98]) were associated with incident MI between 5 and 10 years after discharge. Cumulative MI incidence over 10 years was 5.4%. MI during all follow‐up periods (discharge‐1, 1‐5, 5‐10 years) was associated with increased risk of death (respective HR [95% CI] = 3.26 [2.51‐4.15], 1.96 [1.58‐2.42] and 1.92 [1.26‐2.93]).
In conclusion, prognosis is poor in post‐stroke MI. We highlight a range of potential areas to focus preventative efforts.
Bibliographical noteThe following individuals should be indexed on PubMed as collaborators:
Norfolk and Norwich Stroke Registry Steering Committee Collaborators: Anthony K Metcalfe, Kristian M Bowles.
We would also like to thank the data team of the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital Stroke Services. We also thank Prof Kristian Bowles and Dr Anthony K Metcalfe (co-Principal Investigators of the stroke register) and our lay steering committee members and independent chair Prof Alastair Forbes (Chief of Research & Innovation, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital).
SOURCES OF FUNDING
TAP received the Gwyn Seymour Aberdeen Summer Research Scholarship (ASRS) to carry out the research [grant number EA6414]. ADW was funded by the Special Educational Scholarship award by the Department of Medicine for the Elderly, NHS Grampian [grant number ES798]. NNUH Stroke Register is maintained by the NNUH Stroke Services.
- myocardial infarction
- ischemic stroke
- risk factors
- ischaemic stroke