Muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs (GTOs) are two types of sensory receptors that respond to changes in length or tension of skeletal muscles. These mechanosensors have long been known to participate in both proprioception and stretch reflex. Here, we present recent findings implicating these organs in maintenance of spine alignment as well as in realignment of fractured bones. These discoveries have been made in several mouse lines lacking functional mechanosensors in part or completely. In both studies, the absence of functional spindles and GTOs produced a more severe phenotype than that of spindles alone. Interestingly, the spinal curve phenotype, which appeared during peripubertal development, bears resemblance to the human condition adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This similarity may contribute to the study of the disease by offering both an animal model and a clue as to its aetiology. Moreover, it raises the possibility that impaired proprioceptive signalling may be involved in the aetiology of other conditions. Overall, these new findings expand considerably the scope of involvement of proprioception in musculoskeletal development and function.
|Number of pages
|Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
|Early online date
|24 Sept 2018
|Published - 5 Nov 2018
Bibliographical noteThis review was supported by grants from the Israel Science Foundation MORASHA Biomedical Research Program in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Genetic Disorders and Metabolic Diseases (no. 2147/17) and from the estate of Bernard Bishin for the WIS-Clalit Program (to E.Z.).
- muscle spindle
- Golgi tendon organs
- adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
- fracture repair