COX-2 selective drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to cardiovascular side effects, just a few years after their discovery. As a result, a new series of 1,5-diaryl pyrazole carboxamides 19–31 was synthesized as selective COX-2/sEH inhibitors with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and lower cardiotoxic properties. The target compounds were synthesized and tested in vitro against COX-1, COX-2, and sEH enzymes. Compounds 20, 22 and 29 exhibited the most substantial COX-2 inhibitory activity (IC50 values: 0.82–1.12 µM) and had SIs of 13, 18, and 16, respectively, (c.f. celecoxib; SI = 8). Moreover, compounds 20, 22, and 29 were the most potent dual COX-2/sEH inhibitors, with IC50 values of 0.95, 0.80, and 0.85 nM against sEH, respectively, and were more potent than the standard AUDA (IC50 = 1.2 nM). Furthermore, in vivo studies revealed that these compounds were the most active as analgesic/anti-inflammatory derivatives with a good cardioprotective profile against cardiac biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines. Finally, the most active dual inhibitors were docked inside COX-2/sEH active sites to explain their binding modes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at Jouf University for funding this work through research grant number (DSR2020-04-421 )