Novel approaches to the measurement of arterial blood flow from dynamic digital X-ray images

K.S. Rhode, T. Lambrou, D.J. Hawkes, A.M. Seifalian

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38 Citations (Scopus)


We have developed two new algorithms for the measurement of blood flow from dynamic X-ray angiographic images. Both algorithms aim to improve on existing techniques. First, a model-based (MB) algorithm is used to constrain the concentration-distance curve matching approach. Second, a weighted optical flow algorithm (OP) is used to improve on point-based optical flow methods by averaging velocity estimates along a vessel with weighting based on the magnitude of the spatial derivative. The OP algorithm was validated using a computer simulation of pulsatile blood flow. Both the OP and the MB algorithms were validated using a physiological blood flow circuit. Dynamic biplane digital X-ray images were acquired following injection of iodine contrast medium into a variety of simulated arterial vessels. The image data were analyzed using our integrated angiographic analysis software SARA to give blood flow waveforms using the MB and OP algorithms. These waveforms were compared to flow measured using an electromagnetic flow meter (EMF). In total 4935 instantaneous measurements of flow were made and compared to the EMF recordings. It was found that the new algorithms showed low measurement bias and narrow limits of agreement and also out-performed the concentration-distance curve matching algorithm (ORG) and a modification of this algorithm (PA) in all studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)500-513
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005

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