Does the way a word is written influence its spoken production? Previous studies suggest that orthography is involved only when the orthographic representation is highly relevant during speaking (e.g., in reading-aloud tasks). To address this issue, we carried out two experiments using the blocked cyclic picture-naming paradigm. In both experiments, participants were asked to name pictures repeatedly in orthographically homogeneous or heterogeneous blocks. In the naming task, the written form was not shown; however, the radical of the first character overlapped between the four pictures in this block type. A facilitative orthographic effect was found when picture names shared part of their written forms, compared with the heterogeneous condition. This facilitative effect was independent of the position of orthographic overlap (i.e., the left, the lower, or the outer part of the character). These findings strongly suggest that orthography can influence speaking even when it is not highly relevant (i.e., during picture naming) and the orthographic effect is less likely to be attributed to strategic preparation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by grants from Provincial Social Science Planning Research Project of Shandong, China [Grant No. 20DYYJ03]. We thank Jos Pacilly for the modified Praat script for checking vocal reaction times. The article benefited from discussions with Markus Damian (University of Bristol) and Li Xingshan (Chinese Academy of Sciences).
Data Availability StatementThe data for all experiments are available in the OSF repository (https://mfr.osf.io/render?url=https%3A%2F%2Fosf.io%2Fvp8sb%2Fdownload), and none of the experiments was preregistered. The materials for all experiments are available in the appendices.
- Spoken word production
- Blocked cyclic naming
- Mandarin Chinese