PEF plastic synthesized from industrial carbon dioxide and biowaste

L. Jiang* (Corresponding Author), A. Gonzalez-Diaz, J. Ling-Chin, A. Malik, A. P. Roskilly, A. J. Smallbone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Citations (Scopus)
22 Downloads (Pure)


Polyethylene furandicarboxylate (PEF) is considered as a renewable-based solution to its fossil-based counterpart polyethylene terephthalate (PET). However, due to its lengthy and energy-intensive production process, PEF has not been established at a commercial scale. Here we present a new study on PEF produced from industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and non-food-derived biomass to provide an alternative for PET. We assess PEF production from an energy consumption, environmental impacts and production cost point of view at an industrial scale using mass and energy balance, life-cycle assessment and payback period. The results show that emissions and energy consumption can be reduced up to 40.5% compared with PET. Abiotic depletion (fossil) (6.90 × 104 MJ), global-warming potential (3.75 × 103 kg CO2-equivalent) and human toxicity potential (2.18 × 103 kg 1,4-dichlorobenzene equivalent) are the three most substantial impacts in producing one tonne of PEF. By applying optimal design and mature technology, PEF produced from industrial CO2 and biowastes could be a feasible and competitive substitute for PET and other materials.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)761-767
Number of pages7
JournalNature Sustainability
Early online date1 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020

Bibliographical note

This research was supported by CCS from Industrial clusters and their Supply chains (CCSInSupply) funded by Engineering and Physical Science Research Council of UK (EP/N024567/1).


  • CO2


Dive into the research topics of 'PEF plastic synthesized from industrial carbon dioxide and biowaste'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this