Adapting in-vehicle systems (e.g., advanced driver assistance systems and in-vehicle information systems) to individual drivers' workload can enhance both safety and convenience. To make this possible, it is a prerequisite to infer driver workload so that adaptive aiding can be provided to the driver at the right time and in an appropriate manner. Rather than developing an average model for all drivers, a personalized driver workload inference (PDWI) system considering individual drivers driving characteristics is developed using machine learning techniques via easily accessed vehicle related measurements (VRMs). The proposed PDWI system comprises two stages. In offline training, individual drivers workload is first automatically splitted into different categories according to its inherent data characteristics using fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering. Then an implicit mapping between VRMs and different levels of workload is constructed via classification algorithms. In online implementation, VRMs samples are classified into different clusters, consequently driver workload type can be successfully inferred. A recently collected dataset from real-world naturalistic driving experiments is drawn to validate the proposed PDWI system. Comparative experimental results indicate that the proposed framework integrating FCM clustering and support vector machine classifier provides a promising workload recognition performance in terms of accuracy, precision, recall, F 1 -score, and prediction time. The interindividual differences in term of workload are also identified and can be accommodated by the proposed framework due to its adaptiveness.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems|
|Early online date||1 Dec 2017|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2019|
Bibliographical noteThis work was supported by the U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research
Council Autonomous and Intelligent Systems Programme with BAE Systems as the leading industrial partner under Grant EP/J011525/1. The work of D. Yi was supported by the Chinese Scholarship Council.
- Fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering
- personalized aiding
- support vector machine (SVM)
- workload recognition