Phase locking control in the Circle Map

Pedro Fernando Almeida Di Donato, Elbert E. N. Macau, Celso Grebogi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The phase-locking between two oscillators occurs when the ratio of their frequencies becomes locked in a ratio p/q of integer numbers over some finite domain of parameters values. Due to it, oscillators with some kind of nonlinear coupling may synchronize for certain set of parameters. This phenomenon can be better understood and studied with the use of a well-known paradigm, the Circle Map, and the definition of the winding number. Two diagrams related to this map are especially useful: the 'Arnold tongues' and the 'devil's staircase'. The synchronization that occurs in this map is described by the 'Farey Series'. This property is the starting point for the development of control algorithms capable of locking the system under the action of an external excitation into a desired winding number. In this work, we discuss the main characteristics of the phase-locking phenomenon and consider three control algorithms designed to drive and keep the Circle Map into a desired winding number.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-82
Number of pages8
JournalNonlinear Dynamics
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2007


  • phase-locking
  • Farey Series
  • Circle Map


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