Pilot scale production of novel calcium sulfoaluminate cement clinkers and development of thermal model

Sameer Khare, Marcus C. Bannerman, Fredrik Glasser, Theodore Hanein, Mohammed S. Imbabi

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4 Citations (Scopus)
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Pilot scale trials were successfully performed on the production of novel calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement clinker in a direct natural gas heated rotary kiln at the IBU-tec facility in Germany. A raw meal throughput of ∼25 kg/h was fed to the rotary kiln heated by co-combustion of natural gas and elemental sulfur, with the latter serving as both fuel substitute and reactant, to partially or wholly replace gypsum as the source of sulfur in CSA production. A well-mixed heat transfer kiln model was developed to predict the overall kiln heat flux and gas temperature profiles, to account for gaseous radiative properties. The predicted gas temperature inside the kiln varied from 1566 K in the flame zone to 1019 K at the feed zone, with peak temperature approaching 1724 K. The combined emissivity of the CO2 and H2O gas mixture varied between 0.13 and 0.2 at these temperatures for partial pressure ratio PH2O/PCO2 of 1.7. The trial kiln has a low thermal efficiency of 3% of the total supplied energy.

The simplistic model provided approximate performance predictions for the KDO kiln and also for different kiln sizes and can help to establish the effects of operating parameters on heat transfer trends.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)68-75
Number of pages8
JournalChemical Engineering and Processing
Early online date16 Oct 2017
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017

Bibliographical note

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of Gulf Organisation for Research and Development (GORD), University of Aberdeen grant number EG016-RG11757. They also offer sincere thanks to Dr Thomas Matschei and Mr Guanshu Li at LafargeHolcim for the stimulating discussions relating to future commercial development of CSA. Finally, the authors wish to thank the engineering and operational support team at IBU-tec, who helped to manage and carry out the pilot-scale trials.


  • CSA cement clinker
  • rotary kiln
  • thermal performance
  • modelling
  • sulfur combustion


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