Predicting the cumulative chance of live birth over multiple complete cycles of in vitro fertilization: an external validation study

J. A. Leijdekkers, M. J. C. Eijkemans, T. C. van Tilborg, S. C. Oudshoorn, D. J. McLernon, S. Bhattacharya, B. W. J. Mol, F. J. M. Broekmans, H. L. Torrance, OPTIMIST Group

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Are the published pre-treatment and post-treatment McLernon models, predicting cumulative live birth rates (LBR) over multiple complete IVF cycles, valid in a different context?

With minor recalibration of the pre-treatment model, both McLernon models accurately predict cumulative LBR in a different geographical context and a more recent time period.

Previous IVF prediction models have estimated the chance of a live birth after a single fresh embryo transfer, thereby excluding the important contribution of embryo cryopreservation and subsequent IVF cycles to cumulative LBR. In contrast, the recently developed McLernon models predict the cumulative chance of a live birth over multiple complete IVF cycles at two certain time points: (i) before initiating treatment using baseline characteristics (pre-treatment model) and (ii) after the first IVF cycle adding treatment related information to update predictions (post-treatment model). Before implementation of these models in clinical practice, their predictive performance needs to be validated in an independent cohort.

External validation study in an independent prospective cohort of 1515 Dutch women who participated in the OPTIMIST study (NTR2657) and underwent their first IVF treatment between 2011 and 2014. Participants underwent a total of 2881 complete treatment cycles, with a complete cycle defined as all fresh and frozen thawed embryo transfers resulting from one episode of ovarian stimulation. The follow up duration was 18 months after inclusion, and the primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy leading to live birth.

Model performance was externally validated up to three complete treatment cycles, using the linear predictor as described by McLernon et al. to calculate the probability of a live birth. Discrimination was expressed by the c-statistic and calibration was depicted graphically in a calibration plot. In contrast to the original model development cohort, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), antral follicle count (AFC) and body weight were available in the OPTIMIST cohort, and evaluated as potential additional predictors for model improvement.

Applying the McLernon models to the OPTIMIST cohort, the c-statistic of the pre-treatment model was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.59–0.64) and of the post-treatment model 0.71 (95% CI: 0.69–0.74). The calibration plot of the pre-treatment model indicated a slight overestimation of the cumulative LBR. To improve calibration, the pre-treatment model was recalibrated by subtracting 0.35 from the intercept. The post-treatment model calibration plot revealed accurate cumulative LBR predictions. After addition of AMH, AFC and body weight to the McLernon models, the c-statistic of the updated pre-treatment model improved slightly to 0.66 (95% CI: 0.64–0.68), and of the updated post-treatment model remained at the previous level of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.69–0.73).

Using the recalibrated pre-treatment model, a woman aged 30 years with 2 years of primary infertility who starts ICSI treatment for male factor infertility has a chance of 40% of a live birth from the first complete cycle, increasing to 72% over three complete cycles. If this woman weighs 70 kg, has an AMH of 1.5 ng/mL and an AFC of 10 measured at the beginning of her treatment, the updated pre-treatment model revises the estimated chance of a live birth to 30% in the first complete cycle and 59% over three complete cycles. If this woman then has five retrieved oocytes, no embryos cryopreserved and a single fresh cleavage stage embryo transfer in her first ICSI cycle, the post-treatment model estimates the chances of a live birth at 28 and 58%, respectively.

Two randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of gonadotropin dose individualization on basis of the AFC were nested within the OPTIMIST study. The strict dosing regimens, the RCT in- and exclusion criteria and the limited follow up time of 18 months might have influenced model performance in this independent cohort. Also, consistent with the original model development study, external validation was performed using the optimistic assumption that the cumulative LBR in couples who discontinue treatment without a live birth would have been equal to that of those who continue treatment.

After national recalibration to account for geographical differences in IVF treatment, the McLernon prediction models can be introduced as new counselling tools in clinical practice to inform patients and to complement clinical reasoning. These models are the first to offer an objective and personalized estimate of the cumulative probability of a live birth over multiple complete IVF cycles.

No external funds were obtained for this study. M.J.C.E., D.J.M. and S.B. have nothing to disclose. J.A.L, S.C.O, T.C.v.T. and H.LT. received an unrestricted personal grant from Merck BV. B.W.M. is supported by a NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship (GNT1082548) and reports consultancy for ObsEva, Merck and Guerbet. F.J.M.B. receives monetary compensation as a member of the external advisory board for Merck BV (the Netherlands) and Ferring pharmaceutics BV (the Netherlands), for consultancy work for Gedeon Richter (Belgium) and Roche Diagnostics on automated AMH assay development, and for a research cooperation with Ansh Labs (USA).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1684-1695
Number of pages12
JournalHuman Reproduction
Issue number9
Early online date6 Aug 2018
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sept 2018

Bibliographical note

We would like to thank the women who participated in the OPTIMIST study and the staff of the participating hospitals for their contributions to the OPTIMIST study.


  • prediction model
  • external validation
  • live birth
  • infertility
  • cumulative live birth
  • personalized
  • counselling
  • prognostic research


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