Predictive factors of gestational diabetes in pregnancies following assisted reproductive technology: a nested case–control study

Azam Kouhkan, Mohammad E. Khamseh, Ashraf Moini, Reihaneh Pirjani, Ameneh Ebrahim Valojerdi, Arezoo Arabipoor, Roya Hosseini, Hamid Reza Baradaran*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To evaluate predictive factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in singleton pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology (ART). Methods: This nested case–control study was performed during October 2016–June 2017. Pregnant women who conceived following ART procedures referred to infertility clinic were selected and categorized into GDM and non-GDM based on ADA/IAPDSG criteria. The study variables including age, educational status, first-degree family history of chronic diseases, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, previous obstetric and perinatal outcomes, infertility history, and ART cycle characteristics were collected from medical records. Prediction model to develop GDM was employed by binary logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age and body mass index, family history of diabetes, and gravidity. Results: In total, 270 women with singleton pregnancies (consisted of 135 GDM and 135 non-GDM women) conceived were studied. According to the final model, significant predictors of GDM were history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), previous ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS) risk and progesterone injections. Administration of injectable progesterone during the first 10–12 weeks of pregnancy was associated with an approximately twofold increased risk of developing GDM [odds ratio (OR) 2.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27–4.09)] compared to vaginal progesterone. In addition, the regression analysis revealed that previous OHSS risk (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.34–4.31) and history of PCOS (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.26–6.06) were other most important predictors of GDM. Conclusions: The route of progesterone administration, previous OHSS risk and history of PCOS seem to be putative risk factors for GDM in women conceived by ART.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-206
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Issue number1
Early online date5 May 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018


  • Assisted reproductive technology
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus
  • Predictive factors


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