Predictors and determinants of albuminuria in people with prediabetes and diabetes based on smoking status: A cross-sectional study using the UK Biobank data

Debasish Kar* (Corresponding Author), Aya El-Wazir, Gayathri Delanerolle, Anna Forbes, James P. Sheppard, Mintu Nath, Mark Joy, Nicholas Cole, J. Ranjit Arnold, Andrew Lee, Michael Feher, Melanie J. Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Simon de Lusignan, Elizabeth Goyder

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Summary Background Smoking is attributed to both micro- and macrovascular complications at any stage of metabolic deregulation including prediabetes. Current global diabetes prevention programmes appear to be glucocentric, and do not fully acknowledge the ramifications of cardiorenal risk factors in smokers and ex-smokers. A more holistic approach is needed to prevent vascular complications in people with prediabetes and diabetes before and after quitting. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on participants who agreed to take part in the UK Biobank dataset at the time of their first attendances between March 01, 2006, and December 31, 2010. Those who had their urinary albumin concentration (UAC) data available were included, and those who did not have this data, were excluded. A logistic regression model was fitted to explore the relationship between cardiorenal risk factors and albuminuria in people with prediabetes and diabetes, based on smoking status. Findings A total of 502,490 participants were included in the UK Biobank dataset. Of them, 30.4% (n=152,896) had their UAC level recorded. Compared with non-smokers, the odds of albuminuria in smokers with prediabetes and diabetes were 1.21 (95% CI 1.05 – 1.39, p=0.009), and 1.26 (95% CI 1.10 – 1.44, p=0.001), respectively. The odds declined after quitting in both groups, but it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Each unit increase in HbA1c was associated with equivalent increased odds of albuminuria in current and ex-smokers, OR 1.035 (95% CI 1.030 – 1.039, p
Original languageEnglish
Article number101544
Number of pages11
Early online date2 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource under Application Number 61894. The publication cost for this study was funded by the University of Sheffield. For the purpose of open access, the author has applied a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising


  • Albuminuria
  • Prediabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Smoking


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