Race and sex disparities in acute outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke and diabetes mellitus. A national inpatient sample study.

Rosa J. Thuemmler* (Corresponding Author), Tiberiu Pana, Mohamed O. Mohamed, Amudha Poobalan, Mamas A Mamas, Phyo Kyaw Myint

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background Diabetes Mellitus (DM) disproportionately affects racial minority groups and is a well-established risk factor for ischemic stroke and worse stroke outcomes. Whether racial disparities exist in acute outcomes of patients presenting with Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) and comorbid DM, including potential differences in the administration of evidence-based reperfusion therapy, remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether racial and sex differences exist in the acute outcomes and treatment of patients with DM presenting with AIS. Methods January 2016-December 2018 AIS admissions with diabetes were extracted from the US National Inpatient Sample (NIS). Multivariable logistic regressions assessed the association between race, sex, and differences in in-hospital outcomes (mortality, hospitalisation >4 days, routine discharge, and stroke severity). Further models assessed the relationship between race, sex, and receipt of thrombolysis and thrombectomy. All models were adjusted for relevant confounders, including comorbidities and stroke severity. Results 92,404 records representative of 462,020 admissions were extracted. Median (IQR) age was 72 (61−79), with 49 % women, 64 % White, 23 % African American, and 10 % Hispanic patients. African Americans had lower odds of in-hospital mortality compared to Whites (adjusted odds ratio; 99 % confidence interval=0.72;0.61–0.86), but were more likely to have prolonged hospitalisation (1.46;1.39–1.54), be discharged to locations other than home (0.78;0.74–0.82) and have moderate/severe stroke (1.17;1.08–1.27). Additionally, African American (0.76;0.62–0.93) and Hispanic patients (0.66;0.50–0.89) had lower odds of receiving thrombectomy. Compared to men, women had increased odds of in-hospital mortality (1.15;1.01–1.32). Conclusions Racial and sex disparities exist in both evidence-based reperfusion therapy and in-hospital outcomes amongst patients with AIS and diabetes. Further measures are needed to address these disparities and reduce the excess risk of adverse outcomes among women and African American patients.
Original languageEnglish
Article number107747
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Early online date4 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

RJT received the Aberdeen Summer Research Scholarship funded by the Aberdeen Clinical Academic Pathway Programme. We acknowledge the NIS (Nationwide Inpatient Sample) for providing the data.
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors


  • Diabetes mellitus
  • In-hospital-complications
  • Ischaemic stroke
  • Race/ethnic disparities
  • Sex differences


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