Recurrence of small-for-gestational-age pregnancy: Analysis of first and subsequent singleton pregnancies in the Netherlands

Bart Jan Voskamp*, Brenda M. Kazemier, Anita C.J. Ravelli, Jelle Schaaf, Ben Willem J. Mol, Eva Pajkrt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Our objective was to study the recurrence rate of SGA in subsequent pregnancies. Study Design: A prospective national cohort study of all women with a structurally normal first and subsequent singleton pregnancy from 1999-2007. SGA was defined as birthweight <5th percentile for gestation. We compared the incidence and recurrence rate of SGA for women in total and with and without a hypertensive disorder (HTD) in their first pregnancy. Moreover, we assessed the association between gestational age at first delivery and SGA recurrence. Results: We studied 259,481 pregnant women, of whom 12,943 women (5.0%) had an SGA neonate in their first pregnancy. The risk of SGA in the second pregnancy was higher in women with a previous SGA neonate than for women without a previous SGA neonate (23% vs 3.4%; adjusted odds ratio, 8.1; 95% confidence interval, 7.8-8.5) and present in both women with and without an HTD in pregnancy. In women without an HTD, the increased recurrence risk was independent of the gestational age at delivery in the index pregnancy; whereas in women with an HTD, this recurrence risk was increased only when the woman with the index delivery delivered at >32 weeks' gestation. Conclusion: Women with SGA in their first pregnancy have a strongly increased risk of SGA in the subsequent pregnancy and first pregnancy SGA delivers a significant contribution to the total number of second pregnancy SGA cases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)374.e1-374.e6
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number5
Early online date16 Feb 2013
Publication statusPublished - May 2013

Bibliographical note

We thank all Dutch midwives, obstetricians, neonatologists, and other perinatal health care providers for the registration of perinatal information and the Foundation of The Netherlands Perinatal Registry ( for permission to use the registry data.


  • hypertensive disorder
  • recurrence
  • small-for-gestational-age


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