Reference and gestures in dialogue generation: Three studies with embodied conversational agents

Paul Piwek, Judith Masthoff, Malin Bergenstrahle

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingPublished conference contribution

4 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports on three studies into social presence cues which were carried out in the context of the NECA (Net-environment for Embodied Emotional Conversational Agents) project and the EPOCH network. The first study concerns the generation of referring expressions. We adopted an existing algorithm for generating referring expressions such that it could run according to an egocentric and a neutral strategy. In an evaluation study, we found that the two strategies were correlated with the perceived friendliness of the speaker. In the second and the third study, we evaluated the gestures that were generated by the NECA system. In this paper, we briefly summarize the most salient results of these two studies. They concern the effect of gestures on perceived quality of speech and information retention.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAISB’05: Social Intelligence and Interaction in Animals, Robots and Agents
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the Joint Symposium on Virtual Social Agents
Place of PublicationHatfield, United Kingdom
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)1902956492
Publication statusPublished - 2005
EventSSAISB 2005 Convention, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK, 12 - 15 April 2005 - Hatfield , United Kingdom
Duration: 12 Apr 200515 Apr 2005


ConferenceSSAISB 2005 Convention, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK, 12 - 15 April 2005
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


  • embodied agents
  • evaluation
  • nlg
  • dialogue
  • gestures

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