INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by progressive neuronal loss and currently lack effective treatments that block the degenerative process. It has been suggested that retinoids, a class of vitamin A-derived compounds, may hold potential as future therapeutics for these disorders.
AREAS COVERED: In this review we explore the role of retinoids in modulating various signalling pathways in the brain which influence pathologically relevant processes such as cellular differentiation, immune and antioxidant response, neurite outgrowth and neurite regeneration. These actions are predominantly mediated by the retinoic acid receptors and we discuss the developmental history of ligands for these receptors, assessing how refinements in receptor binding specificity and improved pharmacokinetic properties may influence management of off-target effects.
EXPERT OPINION: New approaches to understanding retinoid's mechanisms of action, including non-genomic pathways, and how these mechanisms interact may prove vital in the development of future retinoid-based neurodegenerative disease treatments.
Bibliographical noteThis paper was funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) grants BB/P004806/1 and BB/S507350/1.
- retinoic acid
- vitamin A
- neurodegenerative disease
- Alzheimer’s disease
- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
- Parkinson’s Disease
- Retinoic acid
- Parkinson’s disease
- Parkinson's disease
- NEURITE OUTGROWTH
- Alzheimer's disease