Reverse-Time Migration for Evaluating the Internal Structure of Tree-Trunks Using Ground-Penetrating Radar

Amir Alani, Iraklis Giannakis* (Corresponding Author), Lilong Zou, Livia Lantini, Fabio Tosti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)


Modern socioeconomic factors such as global timber trade and international travelling have contributed to the rapid increase of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) of trees with devastating effects to the European forests and woodlands. To that extent, numerous non-destructive methodologies have been suggested as diagnostic tools in order to effectively monitor and maintain potential outbreaks. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is an appealing method for tree monitoring as it provides with a trivially deployable and efficient detection tool, suitable for large-scale forestry applications. Nonetheless, traditional GPR approaches are tuned for surface measurements and they are not compatible with the unique measurement configurations associated with forestry applications. Within that context, we present a novel-processing framework, which is capable of addressing features with irregular measurements on closed surfaces. A positioning method is described that exploits a wheel-measuring device in order to accurately associate each A-Scan with its corresponding coordinates. In addition, a processing pipeline is presented that aims at eliminating the ringing noise due to the layered nature of the trees. Lastly, a reverse-time migration is applied to the processed B-Scan in order to effectively map the reflectors present within the trunk. The suggested scheme is successfully tested in both numerical and real-field experiments, indicating the validity of the current approach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102294
Number of pages10
JournalNDT & E International
Early online date29 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020

Bibliographical note

The authors would like to express their sincere thanks and gratitude to the following trusts, charities, organizations and individuals for their generosity in supporting this project: Lord Faringdon Charitable Trust, The Schroder Foundation, Cazenove Charitable Trust, Ernest Cook, Sir Henry Keswick, Ian Bond, P. F. Charitable Trust, Prospect Investment Management Limited, The Adrian Swire Charitable Trust, The John Swire 1989 Charitable Trust, The Sackler Trust, The Tanlaw Foundation and The Wyfold Charitable Trust.

This paper is dedicated to the memory of Jonathon West, a friend, a colleague, a forester, a conservationist and an environmentalist who died following an accident in the woodland that he loved.


  • Decay
  • Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs)
  • Ground penetrating radar (GPR)
  • Migration
  • Tree
  • Tree health monitoring


Dive into the research topics of 'Reverse-Time Migration for Evaluating the Internal Structure of Tree-Trunks Using Ground-Penetrating Radar'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this