Salaries and incomes of health workers in sub-Saharan Africa

David McCoy, Sara Bennett, Sophie Witter, Bob Pond, Brook Baker, Jeff Gow, Sudeep Chand, Tim Ensor, Barbara McPake

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

143 Citations (Scopus)


Public-sector health workers are vital to the functioning of health systems. We aimed to investigate pay structures for health workers in the public sector in sub-Saharan Africa; the adequacy of incomes for health workers; the management of public-sector pay; and the fiscal and macroeconomic factors that impinge on pay policy for the public sector. Because salary differentials affect staff migration and retention, we also discuss pay in the private sector. We surveyed historical trends in the pay of civil servants in Africa over the past 40 years. We used some empirical data, but found that accurate and complete data were scarce. The available data suggested that pay structures vary across countries, and are often structured in complex ways. Health workers also commonly use other sources of income to supplement their formal pay. The pay and income of health workers varies widely, whether between countries, by comparison with cost of living, or between the public and private sectors. To optimise the distribution and mix of health workers, policy interventions to address their pay and incomes are needed. Fiscal constraints to increased salaries might need to be overcome in many countries, and non-financial incentives improved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)675-681
Number of pages7
JournalThe Lancet
Issue number9613
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2008


Dive into the research topics of 'Salaries and incomes of health workers in sub-Saharan Africa'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this