Season, storage and extraction method impact on the phytochemical profile of Terminalia ivorensis

Aliu Moomin*, Wendy Russell, Rachel M. Knott, Lorraine Scobbie, Kwesi Boadu Mensah, Paa Kofi Tawiah du-Gyamfi, Susan J Duthie

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Terminalia ivorensis (TI) is used in West African ethnomedicine for the treatment of conditions including ulcers, malaria and wounds. Despite its widespread use, the phytochemical profile of TI remains largely undetermined. This research investigated the effects of extraction method, season, and storage conditions on the phytochemical composition of TI to contribute towards understanding the potential benefits. Methods: TI bark was collected in September 2014, September 2018 and February 2018 during the rainy or dry seasons in Eastern Region, Ghana. Samples were extracted sequentially with organic solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol) or using water (traditional). Metabolites were identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and compared statistically by ANOVA. Results: A total of 82 different phytochemicals were identified across all samples. A greater yield of the major phytochemicals (44%, p < 0.05) was obtained by water as compared with organic extraction. There was also a higher concentration of metabolites present in cold (63%, p < 0.05) compared with hot water extraction. A significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of phytochemicals were identified from TI collected in the dry (85%) compared to the rainy season (69%). TI bark stored for four years retained 84% of the major phytochemicals. Conclusion: This work provides important information on composition and how this is modified by growing conditions, storage and method of extraction informing progress on the development of TI as a prophylactic formulation or medicine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number162
Pages (from-to)162
Number of pages18
JournalBMC Plant Biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

The authors would like to thank the laboratory technical staff of the School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University (especially Stephen Williamson and Chris Fletcher) and University of Aberdeen, the Analytical Department of Rowett Institute (especially Gary J. Duncan) for their support.

Ghana Education Trust Fund (GETFund) for providing funding for the studies.

Data Availability Statement

The data can be made available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


  • Terminalia Ivorensis
  • Soxhlet Extraction
  • Secondary metabolites
  • Phytochemicals
  • Season
  • Storage
  • LC MS/MS
  • Soxhlet extraction
  • Terminalia ivorensis
  • Water
  • Phytochemicals/analysis
  • Terminalia/chemistry
  • Solvents/chemistry
  • Seasons
  • Plant Extracts/chemistry


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