Seasonal variability of resources: The unexplored adversary of biogas use in rural Ethiopia

Jennifer Marie Wardle* (Corresponding Author), Jo Smith, Anke Fischer, Yitna Tesfaye

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
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Biogas digester programmes have been rolled out across many countries in sub-Saharan Africa over the past decade with varying levels of success. In Ethiopia, reported success rates have been low, despite high levels of interaction between non-governmental organisations and various levels of government, plus the establishment of practical eligibility criteria. In Halaba, Ethiopia, we investigated physical and social factors affecting feedstock and water availability using a face-to-face questionnaire-based survey (n = 112) in four kebeles (local administration areas). We found that practices of fuel use and water collection were markedly different between seasons. Fuel use was almost entirely dependent on season, with wood being burned in the wet season and crop
residues and cow dung being used instead in the dry season. A matched pair t-test found a significant difference between seasons in terms of water collection times (p = 7.4 × 10− 16), with households spending more time and money obtaining clean drinking water in the dry season. Results indicate that seasonal differences in resource availability may reduce the proportion of households that meet the physical characteristics for maintaining a biogas digester by approximately 62% from wet season to dry season. Conversely, the greatest benefits of digester use would be gained in the dry season, when dung could be returned to the soil as a nutrient-rich bioslurry, instead of being combusted as a dirty and inefficient fuel. Seasonality is rarely considered in feasibility studies, so we recommend that these factors should be built into future analyses.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100072
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Research in Environmental Sustainability
Early online date21 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

This project was funded by (BBSRC BB/M010996/1) and the University of Aberdeen. AF’s contribution was supported by UKRI (ES/P002501/1). JS’s contribution was supported by UKRI (ES/P002501/1) and DFID NEXUS (NE/P004830).
We would like to thank Hawassa University and the Southern Agricultural Research Institute for their support with organisation, data collection and translation.


  • Biogas
  • Sustainability
  • Season
  • Ethiopia
  • Water
  • Anaerobic
  • digestion


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