Secularization among Immigrants in Scandinavia: Religiosity across Generations and Duration of Residence

Isabella Kasselstrand, Setareh Mahmoudi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The integration of religious minorities within the secularized West has been a recurring topic of scholarly interest. Previous studies show that religious identities are shaped by family background and social context. Using data from the European Social Survey, this study turns to Scandinavia, the most secular region of the world, to examine religious salience among immigrants over time and across generations. The findings reveal that on most measures, second-generation immigrants are more secular than the first generation, but more religious than their native peers. However, individuals with one immigrant and one native parent are less likely to identify with a religion than other groups, including the native majority. Furthermore, among first-generation immigrants, there is a negative relationship between the duration of residence and religiosity. This study argues for the fluidity of religiosity among immigrants and the secularizing effect of structural agents on the salience of religious identities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)617-636
Number of pages19
JournalSocial Compass
Issue number4
Early online date18 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020


  • immigration
  • integration
  • religiosity
  • Scandinavia
  • secularization


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