The chemokine receptors CXCR1-3 bind to 11 chemokines (CXCL1-11) that are clustered on the same chromosome in mammals but are largely missing in ray-finned fish. A second CXCR1/2, and a CXCR3a and CXCR3b gene have been cloned in rainbow trout. Analysis of CXCR1-R3 genes in lobe-finned fish, ray-finned fish and tetrapod genomes revealed that the teleostomian ancestor likely possessed loci containing both OCCR1 and CXCR2, and CXCR3a and CXCR3b. Based on this synteny analysis the first trout CXCR1/2 gene was renamed CXCR1, and the new gene CXCR2. The CXCR1/R2 locus was shown to have further expanded in ray-finned fish. In relation to CXCR3, mammals appear to have lost CXCR3b and birds both CXCR3a and CXCR3b during evolution. Trout CXCR1-R3 have distinct tissue expression patterns and are differentially modulated by PAMPs, proinflammatory cytokines and infections. They are highly expressed in macrophages and neutrophils, with CXCR1 and CXCR2 also expressed in B-cells. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Open Access funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
This work received funding from the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland). MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions. Q.X. and Y.J. were supported financially by the National Scholarship Council of China, J.W.H by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/K009125/1), and M.M.M. by European Commision LIFECYCLE project (222919).
- Rainbow trout
- PROLIFERATIVE KIDNEY-DISEASE
- CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS
- TELEOST FISH