Sex differences in murine myocardium are not exclusively regulated by gonadal hormones

Franz Theuring, Boris Neumann, Christian Scheler, Peter R. Jungblut, Karima Schwab* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


We investigated sex differences in cardiac protein patterns of intact and castrated mice using proteomics and 1D and 2D immunoblotting. To exclude differences concerning developmental aspects gonadectomy was conducted in mature mice at the age of three months. The main sex-related regulation in the protein pattern of the myocardium occurred for proteins involved in metabolic processes whereas only few proteins involved in other pathways underwent a regulation. Many regulated proteins (2/3) displayed a characteristic V form, which means that these proteins are up- or down-regulated in sexually mature compared to young mice and are back-regulated after castration, emphasizing a direct regulation by gonadal hormones. Several other spots (1/3) showed the same male/female regulation or a drastic increase in male/female spot intensity ratio after castration, suggesting either a regulation independent of sex hormones or a removal of an inhibiting feedback mechanism by gonadectomy. Technically, we found that it cannot be expected that a single spot contains only one protein species and that one protein is present in only one spot. We thus propose for proteomic investigations to identify/quantify all spots of a 2-DE pattern to obtain information about protein speciation and its potential importance for function and pathology.

Biological significance
Sex related differences in cardiovascular disease, including risk factors, disease manifestation and outcomes, are far from being well understood, and improved biological understanding of these differences in the healthy myocardium is of great importance. We investigated sex related changes of myocardial protein pattern in intact and castrated mice at different ages and found metabolic proteins to be highly regulated, some of which independently from gonadal hormones.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-56
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Proteomics
Early online date19 Dec 2017
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2018

Data Availability Statement

Supplementary data to this article can be found online at


  • cardiovascular disease
  • sex differences
  • 2-DE
  • mass spectrometry
  • post-translational modifications


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