Short-Term Memory Conjunctive Binding in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Mario Amore Cecchini* (Corresponding Author), Mario A. Parra, Miriam Brazzelli, Robert H. Logie, Sergio Della Sala

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Short-term memory (STM) binding tests assess the ability to temporarily hold conjunctions between surface features, such as objects and their colors (i.e., feature binding condition), relative to the ability to hold the individual features (i.e., single feature condition). Impairments in performance of these tests have been considered cognitive markers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The objective of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis of results from STM binding tests used in the assessment of samples mapped along the AD clinical continuum. Method: We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for articles that assessed patients with AD (from preclinical to dementia) using the STMbinding tests and compared their results with those of controls. From each relevant article, we extracted the number of participants, the mean and standard deviations from single feature and of feature binding conditions. Results across studies were combined using standardized mean differences (effect sizes) to produce overall estimates of effect. Results: The feature binding condition of the STM binding showed large effects in all stages of AD. However, small sample sizes across studies, the presence of moderate to high heterogeneity and cross-sectional, case-controls designs decreased our confidence in the current evidence. Conclusions: To be considered as a cognitive marker for AD, properly powered longitudinal designs and studies that clearly relate conjunctive memory tests with biomarkers (amyloid and tau) are still needed.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages21
Early online date26 May 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 May 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Mario Amore Cecchini is supported by Principal’s Career Development Scholarship grant from The University of Edinburgh, UK.

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Data Availability Statement

Supplemental materials:


  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Conjunctive memory
  • Memory binding
  • Meta-analysis
  • Systematic review


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