Smoking related disease risk, area deprivation and health behaviours

Barbara Eberth* (Corresponding Author), Damilola Olajide, Peter Craig, Anne Ludbrook

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
47 Downloads (Pure)


Background Smokers and ex-smokers are at risk of many chronic diseases. However, never smokers and never smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are also at risk. Additionally, smoking behaviours and their associated disease risk are socially patterned and positively associated with health inequalities. However, other lifestyle choices also contribute to health inequalities. We aim to assess the contribution of other lifestyle behaviours pertaining to alcohol, physical inactivity and weight to smoking-related disease risk across (i) the socioeconomic spectrum and (ii) smoking status.

Methods Smoking-related disease risk is modelled using probit analysis. The results are used to predict disease risk across the socioeconomic dimension and smoking status for a set of healthy and unhealthy behaviours using the administratively linked Scottish Health Surveys and Scottish Morbidity Records.

Results The results confirm the deprivation gradient in disease risk regardless of smoking status group. Imposition of healthy (unhealthy) lifestyle behaviours decreases (increases) the predicted risk across the deprivation distribution regardless of smoking status providing evidence of the multifaceted health behavioural determinants of disease risk across the deprivation distribution.

Conclusion The results are of policy interest as they suggest that to reduce inequalities in smoking-related diseases, interventions reducing both smoking and other unhealthy behaviours are required.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-80
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Public Health
Issue number1
Early online date3 Apr 2013
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014
EventFaculty of Public Health Conference - Aviemore, United Kingdom
Duration: 10 Nov 201111 Nov 2011

Bibliographical note

We thank Professor Luke Vale, Dr Diane Stockton and participants at the Faculty of Public Health conference, Aviemore, Scotland, November 2011 and UK Society for Behavioural Medicine conference, Stirling, Scotland, December 2011 for helpful comments.

This work was supported by the Medical Research Council National Preventive Research Initiative Phase 2 [G0701874]; see The Funding Partners relevant to this award are: British Heart Foundation; Cancer
Research UK; Department of Health; Diabetes UK; Economic and Social Research Council; Medical Research Council; Research and Development Office for the
Northern Ireland Health and Social Services; Chief Scientist Office; Scottish Government Health Directorates; The Stroke Association; Welsh Assembly Government and World Cancer Research Fund. The Health Economics
Research Unit is funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health and Social Care Directorate


  • health behaviours
  • smoking
  • socioeconomic factors


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