Snowball Earth to Global Warming: Coupled vanadium-carbonaceous deposits in the Cryogenian-Cambrian

John Parnell* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

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The anticipated high demand for new vanadium resources in support of the green energy revolution will be partly met by vanadium in carbonaceous deposits. This type of deposit is particularly developed during a 200 Myr period from Cryogenian-Cambrian. During this period, anoxic conditions were widely developed and provided a template for vanadium deposition. Vanadium became available to the surface during the Neoproterozoic when anomalously high levels were introduced in large igneous provinces. Global glacial erosion transported vanadium to the oceans, along with trace elements that engendered organic carbon accumulation. The combination of vanadium and organic carbon gave rise to a range of deposits, and provides a model to support exploration for further resources.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104876
Number of pages8
JournalOre Geology Reviews
Early online date12 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

I am grateful to J.Johnston and J. Bowie for skilled technical support. The research was partly supported by NERC grant NE/T003677/1. The manuscript benefitted from the comments of two reviewers.


  • Vanadium
  • Green Energy
  • Critical elements
  • Black shale
  • Graphite
  • Neoproterozoic
  • Cambrian


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