Innovations in genetics, nanotechnology and artificial intelligence involve the possibility of enhancement of human attributes and capacities—offering humans innumerable opportunities for diverse, unprecedented experiences and developments both physically and cognitively. These new innovations, frequently associated with theoretical frameworks such as transhumanism, not only raise new ethical–pedagogical questions but also challenge the very meaning of education. Core educational concepts pertaining to the human being, personhood, and the educational self now need to be re-examined or rediscovered in confrontation with transhumanist values. In regard to this task, we investigate Bostrom's teleological approach towards transhumanist values, questioning his understanding of the human person and the inherent implications of a sensible agenda for education, situated within the broad humanist tradition. As an alternative to an educational prospect based on, or endorsing, transhumanist values, we adopt Spaemann's personalist program, implementing his distinction between ‘being someone’ versus ‘being something’. Defending an understanding of the person as someone, and not as a thing that shall be cultivated, we employ Spaemann's distinction between anthropocentrism versus anthropomorphism, recognising the importance of contextualising the human being in a broader existential, embodied framework, while acknowledging the critique of the anthropocene. Along these lines, we elaborate on an understanding of education and the educated person that, in our view, safeguards core human values. In the discussion, we draw on insights from Spaemann, Arendt, Kierkegaard and Gadamer.
- broad humanism