Standalone DC microgrids as complementarity dynamical systems: Modeling and applications

Arash M. Dizqah, Alireza Maheri, Krishna Busawon, Peter Fritzson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


It is well known that, due to bimodal operation as well as existent discontinuous differential states of batteries, standalone microgrids belong to the class of hybrid dynamical systems of non-Filippov type. In this work, however, standalone microgrids are presented as complementarity systems (CSs) of the Filippov type which is then used to develop a multivariable nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC)-based load tracking strategy as well as Modelica models for long-term simulation purposes. The developed load tracker strategy is a multi-source maximum power point tracker (MPPT) that also regulates the DC bus voltage at its nominal value with the maximum of $2.0% error despite substantial demand and supply variations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)102-112
Number of pages11
JournalControl Engineering Practice
Early online date6 Jan 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2015

Bibliographical note

The authors would like to thank the Synchron Technology Ltd. for their partial financial support of this research.


  • Nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC)
  • Wind energy
  • Photovoltaic
  • Lead acid battery
  • Modelica
  • Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)


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