Status of entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria from selected countries of regions of the world

H. K. Kaya, M. M. Aguillera, A. A. Alumai, H. Y. Choo, M. De La Torre, A. Fodor, S. Ganguly, S. Hazir, T. Lakatos, A. Pye, Michael John Wilson, S. Yamanaka, H. Yang, R. U. Ehlers

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187 Citations (Scopus)


Entomopathogenic nematode-bacterium complex research is being conducted in many parts of the world, and initially, a global assessment of this research was the goal of this paper. However, this was deemed impossible because there are so many researchers in many countries and regions working on these important biological control agents of soil pests. Accordingly, research activities from selected countries or regions are presented. In North America and Europe, emphasis was placed on the status of commercially available nematodes, whereas with other countries and regions, the emphasis was placed on the research activities with the nematode-bacterium complexes. The one exception was with Japan where the development of commercial nematodes was emphasized. In China, Korea, and India, research activities in the use of the nematode for controlling insect pests or soil plant pathogens was stressed. In Turkey where the research is in its initial stages, we report on the Turkish nematodes and their associated bacteria. In Central America, initial attempts to control insect pests and mass production research are reported, whereas in South America, the emphasis is on biological control of some insect pests and on some basic research with some of their native nematodes. The research is still in its early stages or non-existent in most African countries, but considerable research progress has been made in Egypt with these nematodes. Overall, the intensity of research varies by country or regions. In most cases, the research in developing countries shows that the emphasis is to demonstrate the usefulness of the entomopathogenic nematodes or their symbiotic bacteria against various pests. The ultimate goal of these research activities is to use them as biological control agents of soil pests. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)134-155
Number of pages21
JournalBiological Control
Publication statusPublished - 2006


  • Steinernema
  • Heterorhabditis
  • Xenorhabdus
  • Photorhabdus
  • bacterial metabolites
  • entomopathogenic nematode/bacterium complex
  • commercial nematodes
  • nematode diversity


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