Stress perçu chez les Iraniens durant la pandémie de la COVID-19; stresseurs et mécanismes d'adaptation: Une approche de méthodes mixtes

Translated title of the contribution: Perceived Stress among Iranians during COVID-19 Pandemic; Stressors and Coping Mechanisms: A Mixed-methods Approach

Masoomeh Faghankhani, Faezeh Sodagari, Marjan Shokrani, Hamid Reza Baradaran, Alimohammad Adabi, Masoud Zabihi, Aliyeh Mahdavi Adeli, Mahdi Fathimakvand, Elahe Golalipour, Sina Aghdasi, Arash Javanbakht* (Corresponding Author), Amir Hossein Jalali Nadoushan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: New coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic socioeconomically affected the world. In this study, we measured the perceived stress in response to the COVID-19 pandemic among Iranians to determine the groups at both extremes of the spectrum followed by identifying the stressors and coping mechanisms.

METHODS: This study was a mixed-methods study. We distributed a web-based 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS-10), to measure perceived stress score (PSS), through social networks from March 12 to 23, 2020. Then, we interviewed 42 students, 31 homemakers, 27 healthcare providers, and 21 male participants to identify the sources of stress and coping mechanisms.

RESULTS: Finally, 13,454 participants completed the questionnaires. The median and interquartile range (IQR) of the participants' PSS was 21 (15-25). Students, homemakers, and healthcare workers (HCWs) showed a higher median (IQR) of PSS compared to other groups (23 [18 to 27], 22 [16 to 26], and 19 [14 to 24], respectively). Male participants showed a lower median (IQR) PSS (17 [12 to 23]). Content analysis of 121 participants' answers showed that the most common stressors were school-related issues mentioned by students, family-related issues mentioned by homemakers, and COVID-19-related issues mentioned by healthcare providers. Male participants' coping mechanisms were mostly related to the perception of their abilities to cope with the current crisis.

CONCLUSION: Our participants clinically showed a moderate level of PSS. The main stressors among students, homemakers, and HCWs were related to their principal role in this period, and male participants' coping mechanisms were inspired by the self-image retrieved from the social perspectives.

Translated title of the contributionPerceived Stress among Iranians during COVID-19 Pandemic; Stressors and Coping Mechanisms: A Mixed-methods Approach
Original languageFrench
Pages (from-to)918-927
Number of pages10
JournalCanadian Journal of Psychiatry
Issue number12
Early online date1 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Acknowledgments: We thank the Dr. Liaosadat Mirsafaei, MD; Hassan Vahidnezhad, PhD; and Amirhossein saeidian, MSc for helping us with circulation of the questionnaire in social media.

Funding: The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Data Availability Statement

Supplemental Material: The supplemental material for this article is available online.


  • COVID-19
  • qualitative research
  • stress
  • psychological
  • adaptation
  • health personnel


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