Structural insights and biomedical potential of IgNAR scaffolds from sharks

Stefan Zielonka, Martin Empting, Julius Grzeschik, Doreen Könning, Caroline Barelle, Harald Kolmar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Citations (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)


Abstract In addition to antibodies with the classical composition of heavy and light chains, the adaptive immune repertoire of sharks also includes a heavy-chain only isotype, where antigen binding is mediated exclusively by a small and highly stable domain, referred to as vNAR. In recent years, due to their high affinity and specificity combined with their small size, high physicochemical stability and low-cost of production, vNAR fragments have evolved as promising target-binding scaffolds that can be tailor-made for applications in medicine and biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of vNAR molecules, addresses aspects of their generation using immunization or in vitro high throughput screening methods and provides examples of therapeutic, diagnostic and other biotechnological applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-25
Number of pages11
Issue number1
Early online date18 Dec 2014
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • antibody technology
  • biologic therapeutic
  • heavy chain antibody
  • IgNAR
  • shark
  • single chain binding domain
  • CDR
  • complementary-determining region
  • HV
  • hypervariable region
  • immunoglobin new antigen receptor
  • IgNAR V domain
  • variable domain of IgNAR
  • mAbs
  • monoclonal antibodies
  • scFv
  • single chain variable fragment
  • VL
  • variable domain of the light chain
  • VH
  • variable domain of the heavy chain
  • VHH
  • variable domain of camelid heavy chain antibodies
  • vNAR


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