Superelastic SMA Belleville washers for seismic resisting applications: experimental study and modelling strategy

Cheng Fang, Xiaoyi Zhou, Adelaja Israel Osofero, Zhan Shu, Marco Corradi

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This study sheds considerable light on the potential of superelastic Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Belleville washers for innovative seismic resisting applications. A series of experimental studies were conducted on washers with different stack combinations under varying temperatures and loading scenarios. The washers showed satisfactory self-centring and energy dissipation capacities at room temperature, although slight degradations of the hysteretic responses accompanied by residual deformations were induced. The hysteretic loops became stable after a few number of cycles, indicating good repeatability. The washers also showed good flexibility in terms of load resistance and deformation, which could be easily varied via changes in the stack combination. Compromised self-centring responses were observed at temperatures below 0 °C or above 40 °C, and a numerical study, validated by the experimental results, was adopted to further investigate the deformation mechanism of the washers. A further phenomenological model, taking account of the degradation effects under varied temperatures, was developed to enable effective and accurate simulation of devices incorporating the washers. Good agreements were observed between the test and simulation results, and the model was shown to have good numerical robustness for wide engineering applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105013
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalSmart Materials & Structures
Issue number10
Early online date16 Sept 2016
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016

Bibliographical note

The work presented in this paper is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) with Grant No. 51408437. The support from the 'Program for Young Excellent Talents in Tongji University' is also gratefully acknowledged.


  • shape memory alloy (SMA)
  • superelastic
  • Belleville washers
  • self-centring
  • numerical study
  • phenomenological model


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