Symbiosis-orientation and the survival of small–large strategic alliances

Ji Li, Yanghong Hu, Ludan Zhang (Corresponding Author), Lan Liang, Wei Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This article studies the long-term performance of entrepreneur firms by paying more attention to their external environments. It argues that prior research on the long-term survival and growth of entrepreneur firms has paid insufficient attention to the effects of external environmental factors. As a result, it remains unclear why only a small percentage of newly established entrepreneur firms can survive for more than 3 years (citation), and an even smaller percentage of the firms can achieve sustainable growth over a longer period of time. To address this research gap, we review the literature on symbiotic strategies in ownership, corporate governance, marketing and new product development, based on which we highlight the importance of symbionts in the sustainable growth of the resource-constrained entrepreneur firms and develop a conceptual model showing the relationship between symbiosis-orientation and its consequences for entrepreneur firms (Figure 1).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-136
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Economies
Issue number2
Early online date12 Jun 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018


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