Teachers’ perceptions of educational reform aimed at inclusion

Suvi Lakkala, Helena Thuneberg, Education in the North

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The goal of this research was to enhance the understanding of implementing educational reforms aiming for more inclusive comprehensive schools in Finland as part of its national developmental projects. In the empirical study, carried out in 2010, a questionnaire was given to all compulsory education teachers in two towns and one rural municipality in Lapland. The response rate was 327, or 53% of all respondents. Analysis procedures were statistical: explorative factor analysis, GLM MANOVA, cross-tabulation, and chi-square tests. The results were as follows. Regarding attitudes towards an inclusive class, on average, positive attitudes occurred if a teacher had participated in the process of making Individual Learning Plans (ILP) or in in-service training. Regarding attitudes towards mainstream school, women, principals, and special education teachers had the most positive attitudes. Participating in making Individual Education Plans (IEP) also had a positive impact. Factors related to negative attitudes toward the mainstream school included male teachers, subject teachers, and those who had not received in-service training or had not planned any ILPs or IEPs. Implications for teacher training are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-319
Number of pages25
JournalEducation in the North
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 11 Aug 2018


  • Educational Reform
  • Compulsory Education
  • Inclusive Education
  • Teachers
  • Attitudes


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