Testing the Validity of the Crosswise Model: A Study on Attitudes Towards Muslims

David Johann* (Corresponding Author), Kathrin Thomas

*Corresponding author for this work

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This paper investigates the concurrent validity of the Crosswise Model when “high incidence behaviour” is concerned by looking at respondents’ self-reported attitudes towards Muslims. We analyse the concurrent validity by comparing the performance of the Crosswise Model to a Direct Question format. The Crosswise Model was designed to ensure anonymity and confidentiality in order to reduce Social Desirability Bias induced by the tendency of survey respondents to present themselves in a favourable light. The article suggests that measures obtained using either question format are fairly similar. However, when estimating models and comparing the impact of common predictors of negative attitudes towards Muslims, some puzzling results are revealed raising concerns about the validity of the Crosswise Model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalSurvey Methods: Insights from the Field
Early online date16 May 2017
Publication statusPublished - 16 May 2017

Bibliographical note

This work was supported by the Austrian National Election Study (AUTNES), a National Research Network (NFN) sponsored by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) [S10902-G11]. We thank Ben Jann for his kind support and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback.


  • attitudes towards Muslims
  • crosswise model
  • validity


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