Proton-electron double-resonance imaging (PEDRI) has considerable value for study of the distribution and elimination pathways of nitroxide free radicals (NFRs). This has been illustrated by its use in studies of kidney function in the living rat in which the NFR proxyl carboxylic acid (PCA) has been employed as a 'tracer'. The technique, at its present stage of development, can demonstrate location of PCA in enough detail to observe the passage through kidney cortex and medulla differentially, and to see the NFR within the major abdominal blood vessels. These studies are helping towards an understanding of the metabolic fate of PCA, as well as providing information about kidney performance after challenge with a nephrotoxin. In addition, nitric oxide complexes, formed in vivo by providing rats with a nitrite-rich diet, have been observed ex vivo using PEDRI and field-cycled DNP.