The development of the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL: a shortened questionnaire for cancer patients in palliative care

M. Groenvold, M. A. Petersen, N. K. Aaronson, J. I. Arraras, J. M. Blazeby, A. Bottomley, Peter Fayers, A. de graeff, E. Hammerlid, S. Kaasa, M. A. G. Sprangers, J. Bjorner, EORTC Quality of Life Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

475 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed at developing a shortened version of the EORTC QLQ-C30, one of the most widely used health-related quality of life questionnaires in oncology, for palliative care research. The study included interviews with 41 patients and 66 health care professionals in palliative care to determine the appropriateness, relevance and importance of the various domains of the QLQ-C30. Item response theory methods were used to shorten scales. Patients and health care professionals rated pain, physical function, emotional function, fatigue, global health status/quality of life, nausea/vomiting, appetite, dyspnoea, constipation, and sleep as most important. Therefore, these scales/items were retained in the questionnaire. Four scales were shortened without reducing measurement precision. Important dimensions not covered by the questionnaire were identified. The resulting 15-item EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL is a 'core questionnaire' for palliative care. Depending on the research questions, it may be supplemented by additional items, modules or questionnaires. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-64
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Cancer
Issue number1
Early online date12 Sept 2005
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2006

Bibliographical note

This work was financially supported by the EORTC Quality of Life Group


  • quality of life
  • palliative care
  • questionnaires
  • health status
  • self-assessment
  • treatment outcome
  • randomized controlled trials
  • item response theory
  • Eeuropean organization
  • self assessment
  • lung cancer
  • QLQ-C30
  • validation
  • scale
  • scores


Dive into the research topics of 'The development of the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL: a shortened questionnaire for cancer patients in palliative care'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this