Co-management, in combination with social capital, is expected to improve social-ecological outcomes in protected areas. This paper builds a model of how co-management and social capital are linked, and it investigates how they have changed over time. We emphasize that considering the temporal aspect is crucial for assessing co-management and social capital. The following factors were found to facilitate co-management: a Participatory Advisory Council as a negotiation arena that links with a community-based organization; rotating meeting location to encourage community involvement; a committed Park director and sufficient staff. A co-management process requires ongoing investment. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
We thank the Park administration and the Forest Foundation (Fundação Florestal, FF) for access to data and field support. We are grateful to all people who were willing to participate in this study, in particular Marujá community. We also thank Kerry Waylen and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper.
The empirical research has been funded by the 7th Framework Program of the European Union in the project CiVi.net – The Capacity of Civil Society Organizations and their Networks in Community-based Environmental Management, under Contract ID: 282750. We thank the Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF) for their research support. Some of the writing time was funded by the Scottish Government Environmental Science and Analytical Services division (RESAS).
- social capital
- conservation units
- community involvement
- BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
- SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
- ADAPTIVE COMANAGEMENT