The effects of human and material resources on students’ math achievement in 45 countries

Serdar Aztekin, Haci Yilmaz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study aims to explore the effects of human and material resources on mathematical literacy. For this purpose, mathematical literacy test scores and questionnaire responses of 304,444 fifteen-year-olds in 45 countries participated in the 2012 cycle of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Project, were analysed through two-level and three-level hierarchical linear models (HLM). Selected indices and scales representing material and human resources’ effects on students’ mathematical literacy were investigated. The results revealed that 23% of the total variance in the literacy scores is attributable to between-countries, 34% of the variance is attributable to between-schools and the remaining 43% to individual student characteristics. Only two school factors, the quality of school educational resources and teacher morale, were found to have effects on students’ performance after accounting for the gender, the index of economic, social and cultural status, and the cumulative expenditure on education. The results of the study have potential to help policy makers determine their priorities in education and provide hints for future studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-20
Number of pages13
JournalProblems of Education in the 21st Century
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2014


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