To evaluate the contemporary prevalence of urinary tract cancer (bladder cancer, upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) and renal cancer) in patients referred to secondary care with haematuria, adjusted for established patient risk markers and geographical variation. This was an international multicentre prospective observational study. We included patients aged 16 and over, referred to secondary care with suspected urinary tract cancer. Patients with a known or previous urological malignancy were excluded. We estimated the prevalence of bladder cancer, UTUC, renal cancer and prostate cancer; stratified by age, type of haematuria, sex and smoking. We used a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to adjust cancer prevalence for age, type of haematuria, sex, smoking, hospitals and countries. Of the 11,059 patients assessed for eligibility, 10,896 were included from 110 hospitals across 26 countries. The overall adjusted cancer prevalence (n=2257) was 28.2% (95% CI 22.3-34.1), bladder cancer (n=1951) 24.7% (19.1-30.2), UTUC (n=128) 1.14% (0.77-1.52), renal cancer (n=107) 1.05% (0.80-1.29) and prostate cancer (n=124) 1.75% (1.32-2.18). Odds ratios for patient risk markers in the model for all cancers were: Age 1.04 (95% CI 1.03-1.05) p
Grants from Action Bladder Cancer UK, The Urology Foundation, The Rosetrees Trust were used for costs of statistical analysis and dissemination of results at international meetings and conferences. There were no endorsements from pharmaceutical companies or agencies to write this article. The corresponding author (Sinan Khadhouri) had full access to the data and held the final responsibility to submit the manuscript. Action Bladder Cancer UK, The Urology Foundation, The Rosetrees Trust.
- bladder cancer
- upper tract urothelial cancer
- renal cancer
- cancer prevalence
- urinary tract cancer
- prostate cancer