The impact of cognitive control on children's goal monitoring in a time-based prospective memory task

Caitlin Mahy, Babett Voigt, Nicola Ballhausen, Katharina Schnitzspahn, Judi Ellis, Matthias Kliegel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


The present study investigated whether developmental changes in cognitive control may underlie improvements of time-based prospective memory. Five-, 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds (N = 166) completed a driving simulation task (ongoing task) in which they had to refuel their vehicle at specific points in time (PM task). The availability of cognitive control resources was experimentally manipulated by imposing a secondary task that required divided attention. Children completed the driving simulation task both in a full-attention condition and a divided-attention condition where they had to carry out a secondary task. Results revealed that older children performed better than younger children on the ongoing task and PM task. Children performed worse on the ongoing and PM tasks in the divided-attention condition compared to the full-attention condition. With respect to time monitoring in the final interval prior to the PM target, divided attention interacted with age such that older children’s time monitoring was more negatively affected by the secondary task compared to younger children. Results are discussed in terms of developmental shifts from reactive to proactive monitoring strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)823-839
Number of pages17
JournalChild Neuropsychology
Issue number6
Early online date24 Oct 2014
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • prospective memory
  • divided attention
  • time monitoring
  • reactive control
  • proactive control
  • inhibition


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