The Influence of welding procedure and plate geometry on residual stresses in thick components

M. E. Kartal* (Corresponding Author), Y-H. Kang, A.M. Korsunsky, A.C.F. Cocks, J.P. Bouchard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)


This study compares the residual stress profiles generated by two different welding techniques (multi-pass and single pass welding) in 80 mm thick ferritic steel welds. As residual stresses in such thick welded steel specimens that are representative of important industrial processes are to be determined, the contour method as a practical choice is employed. The results show that the residual stress distribution is sensitive to the details of the welding process, with the maximum tensile residual stress being located in the weld for the multi-pass weld and in the heat-affected zone for the single pass weld. However, the results obtained from the contour method are only valid at the cut plane. In order to predict residual stress variations along the depth of the welded specimens from the free surface, the inverse eigenstrain technique is extended. The eigenstrain-based approach allows us to evaluate the minimum specimen length required for the accurate estimate of residual stresses in large-scale engineering structures. This technique also allows predicting the correct magnitude of residual stresses in the full length specimen even if a shorter specimen is used for experiments. Finally, multiple cut contour measurements are made on the multi pass specimen in order to compare the distributions of residual stress in the longitudinal and transverse directions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)420-429
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Solids and Structures
Early online date22 Oct 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016

Bibliographical note

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council in the UK (EPSRC) under grant reference EP/G004676/1, “Micromechanical Modelling and Experimentation”. They would also like to thank POSCO for supporting the experimental programme by supplying specimen material. We should also like to acknowledge Mr. P. Ledgard for sectioning of the samples and Dr. F. Hosseinzadeh for organising the timeline for the samples.


  • residual stresses
  • contour methods
  • Eigenstrain
  • welding
  • steel


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