The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

N. S. Sorensen, C. Tegtmeier, L. O. Andresen, M. Pineiro, M. J. M. Toussaint, Fiona Margaret Campbell, F. Lampreave, P. M. H. Heegaard

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    The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic, infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p.i.), until the pigs were killed and autopsied on day 14 p.i. Clinical signs (fever and lameness) were observed in four of the five inoculated pigs from day 2 p.i., and these pigs also had arthritic lesions at autopsy. CRP and SAA showed fast increases in serum concentrations, CRP being elevated from days 1 to 12 p.i. and peaking at 10 times the day 0-levels on day 1 p.i. SAA rose quickly to peak levels of 30-40 times the day 0-level on days 1-2 and returned to pre-inoculation level on day 5 p.i. Hp and pig-MAP showed slightly slower responses, both peaking around 5 days p.i. Hp was increased throughout the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1-12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1-2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes in albumin levels could be identified. One pig, showing clinical signs on day 2 only, also showed an APP response. although of a relatively short duration, whereas three pigs presenting clinical signs for several days had a more protracted acute phase response. Remarkably, the one pig showing no clinical signs and no arthritic lesions showed an APP response comparable to that of the other, clinically affected pigs. Thus, both acute clinical and subclinical S. suis infection could be revealed by the measurement of one or more of the APPs CRP, SAA, Hp, pig-MAP and Apo A-I. The combined measurement of two or three APPs, including proteins with slow and fast kinetics, should be used to achieve the highest sensitivity for the detection of ongoing S. suis infection during a prolonged time period. A diagnostic tool based on such APP-measurements could considerably improve strategic control procedures for this important infection. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)157-168
    Number of pages12
    JournalVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
    Issue number1-2
    Early online date13 Jun 2006
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2006


    • pig
    • Streptococcus suis
    • acute phase response
    • C-reactive protein
    • haptoglobin
    • pig major acute phase protein
    • serum amyloid A
    • albumin
    • apolipoprotein A-I
    • PIGS
    • TYPE-2
    • SWINE
    • Pig
    • Acute phase response
    • Haptoglobin
    • Pig major acute phase protein
    • Serum amyloid A
    • Albumin
    • Apolipoprotein A-I


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