Theoretical description of PIV measurement errors

Stuart Cameron* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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Expressions for particle image velocimetry (PIV) mean error and error variance are derived for iterative deformation method algorithms. The analytical expressions explicitly account for the role of in- and out-of-plane displacements, displacement gradients, particle image diameter, fill factor of the imaging sensor, image noise, light sheet intensity distribution, seeding particle concentration, the interpolation function used to deform PIV images, and the interrogation window size and weighting window. The newly derived analytical expressions show good agreement with errors estimated using synthetic image sets.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2379–2387
Number of pages9
JournalActa Geophysica
Issue number5
Early online date5 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

The study has been supported by three UKRI grants,"Bed friction in rough-bed free-surface flows: a theoretical framework, roughness regimes, and quantification" (EPSRC EP/ K041088/1); "Secondary currents in turbulent flows over rough walls" (EPSRC EP/V002414/1); and "Field Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (FSPIV) system for high-resolution in-situ studies of freshwater and marine ecosystems" (NERC NE/T009004/1). Thanks to Professor Vladimir Nikora for his helpful comments on the final draft of this manuscript.


  • Particle image velocimetry
  • Measurement error
  • Open channel flow
  • Velocity measurement


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