Time-based prospective memory in children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

Céline Souchay, Lydia Dubourg, Nicola Ballhausen, Maude Schneider, Charline Cerf, Katharina Schnitzspahn, Laurence Faivre, Matthias Kliegel, Stephan Eliez

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3 Citations (Scopus)
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Objective: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, also known as velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11.2 and characterized by marked impairment in visual attention and executive function. The present study examined if this cognitive deficit extends to prospective memory (the type of memory involved in remembering to perform actions in the future).

Method: 20 participants with 22q11.2DS aged between 6 and 14 were included in the study as well as 22 typically developing individuals (TDC) aged 6 to 12. To measure prospective memory, participants were asked to play a driving game (the Dresden Cruiser, Voigt et al., 2014). This time-based prospective memory task required children to remember to refuel their car when the fuel level was low by pressing a refuel button while driving.

Results and Discussion: Participants with 22q11.2DS remembered less often to refuel the car. Furthermore, participants with 22q11.2DS checked the fuel gauge significantly less often than the controls.

Conclusions: Participants with 22q11.2DS therefore demonstrate difficulties completing a time-based prospective memory task. This can be explained by a generally less frequent time checking behaviour in comparison to TDC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)981-992
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number5
Early online date14 Nov 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Acknowledgments: The authors thank the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF, Switzerland) and the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR, France) for their support.


  • Prospective memory
  • Time checking
  • 22q11.2 deletion syndrome


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