Traceability Approaches for Marine Genetic Resources Under the Proposed Ocean (BBNJ) Treaty

Fran Humphries* (Corresponding Author), Muriel Rabone, Marcel Jaspars

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)


Negotiations are underway for a new treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Points of contention in the negotiation concern marine genetic resources and questions of monetary and/or non-monetary benefit sharing arising from their use. Tracing the origin of marine genetic resources used in scientific research, development and commercialization may offer the evidence needed to prove they came from areas beyond national jurisdiction and that benefit sharing is owed. Traceability is complex and multidisciplinary: involving legal, scientific and informatics considerations. We look at different traceability approaches within national jurisdictions and how these might provide lessons for the proposed treaty, using one of the few case studies available to trace the commercial development of a marine genetic resource from areas beyond national jurisdiction. We discuss this case study in relation to existing legal frameworks including the Nagoya Protocol and other systems based on open sharing of information and materials, including existing scientific practice. We conclude that a well-designed traceability system tailored to the unique geographical, political and jurisdictional characteristics of areas beyond national jurisdiction could lead to more equitable outcomes for the sharing of benefits from the use of marine genetic resources. Our key recommendations are that any traceability mechanism needs to be light touch, integrated with existing systems such as bioinformatics databases and not impose additional burdens on scientific users. Systems should be designed to improve scientific knowledge of ocean biodiversity to allow better conservation measures to be developed. If treaty negotiators engage commercial sectors to find workable policy solutions for the draft treaty that promote greater transparency and data sharing from these sectors, there may be a greater chance for traceability mechanisms to support benefit sharing.
Original languageEnglish
Article number661313
Number of pages21
JournalFrontiers in Marine Science
Early online date27 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 27 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

The open access fee was funded by the Griffith
University Queensland.

We wish to thank Aurélie Lécolier and Sylvia Colliec Jouault at IFREMER for information on Deepsane; Marjo Vierros for providing information hydrothermal vent patents from
ABNJ, and Charles Lawson for providing comments on the manuscript. The cartoon figures used in Figures 1, 6 are from
the Noun Project (DNA by Vectors Point, coral by Nook Fulloption, liquid by Smalllike, database by Flatart, third party by Priyanka, drug by Adindar, label by AB Designs, certificate by Libertetstudio, aeroplane by Deepz, car by Adrien Coquet, dolly by Vectorstall, box by IconMark, factory by Iconsphere, and barcode by Adned Kadri).


  • marine genetic resources
  • biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction
  • traceabilily
  • benefit sharing
  • open access


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