Trade Policy and International Marketing Under Reagan and Trump: An Abstract

Michael R. Czinkota, Gary Knight* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingPublished conference contribution


We investigate the international marketing implications of the international trade policies of US Presidents Ronald Reagan (‘Reagan’) and Donald Trump (‘Trump’). Today, in international trade, tariffs are low, averaging about 3% in the advanced economies and 10–15% in the emerging markets. Average tariff across all goods worldwide is about 6%, down from 18% in 1990. Meanwhile, world trade has increased consistently. China is the most important trading partner of the US. China is a huge supplier of many products, and a huge market.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFrom Micro to Macro: Dealing with Uncertainties in the Global Marketplace
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 2020 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference
EditorsFelipe Pantoja, Shuang Wu
Number of pages2
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-89883-0
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-89882-3
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2022
EventAMS 2020: Academy of Marketing Science 44th Annual Conference - Virtual, United States
Duration: 14 Dec 202019 Dec 2020


ConferenceAMS 2020
Abbreviated titleAMS2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States
Internet address


  • International trade policy
  • International marketing
  • Tariffs
  • Protectionism
  • Public policy


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