Trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness for the prevention of laboratory-confirmed influenza in a Scottish population 2000 to 2009

C R Simpson, N I Lone, K Kavanagh, L D Ritchie, C Robertson, Aziz Sheikh, J McMenamin

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To evaluate seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in Scotland, we performed a Scotland-wide linkage of patient-level primary care, hospital and virological swab data from 3,323 swabs (pooling data over nine influenza seasons: 2000/01 to 2008/09). We estimated the VE for reducing realtime RT-PCR-confirmed influenza using a test-negative study design. Vaccination was associated with a 57% (95% confidence interval (CI): 31–73) reduction in the risk of PCR-confirmed influenza. VE was 60% (95% CI:22–79) for patients younger than 65 years and clinically at risk of serious complications from influenza, and 19% (95% CI: −104 to 68) for any individual 65 years and older. Vaccination was associated with substantial, sustained reductions in laboratory-confirmed influenza in the general population and younger patients in clinical at-risk groups.

Original languageEnglish
Article number21043
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 26 Feb 2015

Bibliographical note

The authors would like to thank staff at PCCIU, Health Protection Scotland and the Information Services Division, the general practices and virus laboratories that contributed data to the study and members of the Independent Steering Committee overseeing this work. This study was funded by a grant from the National Institute for Health Research Health Services & Delivery Research Programme (09/2000/37) (Simpson CR et al., The views and opinions expressed therein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the HS&DR programme, NIHR, NHS or the Department of Health. The authors also acknowledge the financial support of ECDC through their IMOVE seasonal influenza vaccination project led by Epiconcept, which allowed virology data cleaning for the 2008/09 season.


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Influenza A virus
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Influenza, Human
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Primary Health Care
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Scotland
  • Seasons
  • Sentinel Surveillance
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • Young Adult
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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