Using gene expression to predict differences in the secretome of human omental vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue

Nigel Hoggard, Morven Cruickshank, Kim-Marie Moar, Shabina Bashir, Claus-Dieter Mayer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this study was to characterize differences in the secretome of human omental compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue using global gene expression profiling. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in two independent experiments (n = 5 and n = 3 independent subjects; n = 16 arrays in total, 2 for each subject). Predictive bioinformatic algorithms were employed to identify secreted proteins. Microarray analysis identified 22 gene probe sets whose expression was significantly different with a fold change (FC) greater than 5 in expression in both experiments between omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Using bioinformatic predictive programs 11 of these 22 probe sets potentially coded for secreted proteins. Pathway network analysis of the secreted proteins showed that three of the proteins are part of a common pathway network. These proteins gremlin 1 (GREM1), pleiotrophin (PTN), and secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI) are expressed respectively 43x, 23x, and 5x in omental adipose tissue relative to subcutaneous adipose tissue as determined by real-time PCR. The presence of GREM1, PTN, and SLPI protein in human adipose tissue was confirmed by western blotting. All three proteins are expressed in the human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) preadipocyte cell line. The expression of GREM1, PTN, and SLPI changed with the differentiation of the preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. Gene expression coupled with predictive bioinformatic algorithms have identified several genes coding for secreted proteins which are expressed differently in omental adipose tissue compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue proving a valid alternative approach to help further define the adipocyte secretome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1158-1167
Number of pages10
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012


  • inflammation-related genes
  • obese subjects
  • weight-loss
  • pleiotrophin
  • adipocytes
  • adipokines
  • gremlin
  • butyrylcholinesterase
  • identification
  • adipogenesis


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