Vascular anomalies are common in the upper extremity, but there continues to be a relative paucity of information about them in the hand and upper limb surgical literature. The wide spectrum of pathology and an inconsistent use of terminology make vascular anomalies susceptible to incorrect diagnosis and as a result to misdirected management. This article aims to provide an update on vascular anomalies relevant to the upper limb, focusing on significant advances in pathogenesis and genetics, classification systems, diagnosis, and treatment.
Bibliographical noteAcknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Selina Ackermann for her great help with the editing of this article.
Funding: The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
- vascular anomalies
- vascular tumours
- upper limb
- Vascular anomalies
- Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics
- Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue/diagnosis
- Upper Extremity/blood supply
- Musculoskeletal Abnormalities/genetics
- Vascular Malformations/classification
- CONGENITAL HEMANGIOMA
- PORT-WINE STAINS
- VENOUS MALFORMATIONS
- INFANTILE HEMANGIOMAS